These stages are commonly known as: Forming, Storming,
Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Tuckman's model explains that as
the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and
leadership style changes to more collaborative or shared leadership.
Tuckman's original work simply described the way he had observed groups
evolve, whether they were conscious of it or not. In CORAL, the real
value is in recognizing where a team is in the developmental stage process,
and assisting the team to enter a stage consistent with the collaborative
work put forth. In the real world, teams are often forming and changing,
and each time that happens, they can move to a different Tuckman Stage.
A group might be happily Norming or Performing, but a new member might
force them back into Storming, or a team member may miss meetings causing
the team to fall back into Storming. Project guides will be ready for
this, and will help the team get back to Performing as quickly as possible.
The initial forming stage is the process
of putting the structure of the team together. Team members feel ambiguous
and conflict is avoided at all costs due to the need to be accepted
into the group. Team members look to a group leader for direction and
guidance, usually CORAL project guides.
Orienting with others personally.
Cliques may form.
Need for safety and approval.
Attempts to define tasks, processes, and how it will be
Discussion of problems not relevant to the task.
|Many feel excited, optimistic, and full of anticipation
Others may feel suspicious, fearful, and anxious working
What is expected of me?
Why are they here?
What is expected of me?
|Team mission and vision.
Establish specific objectives and tasks.
Identify roles and responsibilities of team members.
Establish team ground rules.
Team member expectations.
Operational guidelines for team.
Effective in class meetings.
Effective Chat meetings.
1st set of feedback
from project guides.
|Project Guides & Instructors
provide structure and task direction.
Allow for get-acquainted time
Create an atmosphere of confidence and optimism
Team members believe an appointed leader necessary to make
One-way communication from leader to team-members.
from this stage to the next stage, each member must relinquish
the comfort zone of non-threatening topics and risk the
possibility of conflict.
|Storming: This stage begins to occur
as the process of organizing tasks and processes surface
interpersonal conflicts. Leadership, power, and structural
issues dominate this stage.
|Arguing among members.
Vying for leadership.
Differences in points of view and personal style are evident.
Lack of role clarity.
Team organizing itself.
Power struggles and clashes.
Lack of consensus-seeking behaviors.
Lack of progress.
Establishes unrealistic goals.
Concern over excessive work.
Confusion, loss of interest can result.
Resistance to tasks.
Fluctuations in attitude about the team.
Unsure if I agree with teams mission and purpose.
Question the wisdom of team members.
Increase in tension and jealousy.
Unsure about my personal influence and freedom in the team.
Were not getting anywhere?
|Inter & intra personal relationships.
Identify stylistic and personal differences.
Giving and receiving feedback.
Clarify and understand the team’s purpose.
Reestablish roles and ground rules. How to deal with ‘some’
team members violating team codes of conduct?
From project guides.
|Project guide & Instructors
Project Guides suggest that consensus among team members.
Get members to assume more task responsibility. Concept
of Shared Leadership emerges.
Teach conflict resolution methods.
Offer support and praise.
Team members begin consulting one another – shared
leadership emerging but have difficulty with decision making.
Fair amount of clarifying, persuading and explaining.
|In order to progress
to the next stage, group members must move from a "testing
and proving" mentality to a problem-solving mentality.
The most important trait in helping teams move to the next
stage is the ability of team members to listen to their
team mates - what are they trying to say?
|Norming: In this stage, team
members are creating new ways of doing and being together.
As the group develops cohesion, leadership changes from
‘one’ teammate in charge to shared leadership.
Team members learn they have to trust one another for shared
leadership to be effective.
|Processes and procedures
are agreed upon.
Comfortable with relationships.
Focus and energy on tasks.
Effective conflict resolution skills.
Sincere attempt to make consensual decisions.
Balanced influence, shared problem solving.
Develop team routines.
Sets and achieves task milestones.
|Sense of belonging to a team.
Confidence is high.
Team members feel a new ability to express criticism constructively.
Acceptance of all members in the team.
General sense of trust.
Assured that everything is going to work out okay.
Freedom to express and contribute.
|Develop a decision making process.
Be prepared to offer ideas and suggestions.
Problem solving is shared.
Utilizing all resources to support the team effort.
Team members take responsibility in shared leadership skills.
From project guides.
Give feedback and support from Project Guides.
Allow for less structure.
Promotes team interaction.
Asks for contributions from all team members.
Encouraging others in making decision.
Continues to build strong relationships.
The major task
function of stage three is the data flow between
group members: They share feelings and ideas, solicit
and give feedback to one another, and explore actions
related to the task. Creativity is high. Collaboration
emerges during this stage when team work ethic and shared
leadership is understood.
The major drawback of the norming stage
is that members may begin to fear the inevitable future
breakup of the team; they may resist change of any sort.
interdependence is the norm of this stage of group development.
The team is flexible as individuals adapt to meet the needs
of other team members. This is a highly productive stage
both personally and professionally.
||Feelings & Thoughts
|Fully functional teams.
Roles are clearer. Team develops independence.
Team able to organize itself.
Flexible members function well individually, in subgroups or as
Better understand each other’s strengths and weaknesses and
insights into group processes.
|Empathy for one another.
Begin understanding collaborative work ethic.
Tight bonds emerge.
Fun and excitement.
Lots of personal development and creativity.
General sense of satisfaction.
Continual discovery of how to sustain feelings of momentum and enthusiasm.
|Project guides assure team is moving in collaborative direction.
Maintain team flexibility.
Measure knowledge performance – post test.
Giving and Receiving Feedback and Dialogue with project guides.
|Shared Leadership being practiced.
Fulfilling- team needs.
Collaborative efforts among team members.
Project guides provides little direction.
Team members offer positive reinforcement and support.
Share new information.
|The Performing stage is
not reached by all groups. If group members are able to evolve to
stage four, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations
expand to true interdependence. In this stage, people can work independently,
in subgroups, or as a total unit with equal competencies.
|Adjourning: In this
stage typically team members are ready to leave (course termination)
causing significant change to the team structure, membership, or
purpose and the team during the last week of class. They experience
change and transition. While the group continues to perform productively
they also need time to manage their feelings of termination and
||Feelings & Thoughts
|Visible signs of grief.
Momentum slows down.
Bursts of extreme energy usually followed by lack of energy.
Humor (that to outsiders could appear cruel).
Glad it is over – relief.
|Evaluate the efforts of the team.
Tie up loose ends and tasks.
Recognize and reward team efforts.
|Project guides help team develop options for termination.
Reflection and carry forth collaborative learning to next opportunity.
|The final stage, adjourning, involves
the termination of task behaviors and disengagement from relationships.
A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation
and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes.
Concluding a group can create some apprehension – in effect,
a minor crisis. The termination of the group is a regressive movement
from giving up control to giving up inclusion in the group.